Chapter 3: A First Impression Of C++

In this chapter C++ is further explored. The possibility to declare functions in structs is illustrated in various examples; the concept of a class is introduced; casting is covered in detail; many new types are introduced and several important notational extensions to C are discussed.

3.1: Notable differences with C

Before we continue with the `real' object-approach to programming, we first introduce some notable differences with the C programming language: not mere differences between C and C++, but important syntactic constructs and keywords not found or differently used in C.

3.1.1: Using the keyword `const'

Even though the keyword const is part of the C grammar, its use is more important and much more common and strictly used in C++ than it is in C.

The const keyword is a modifier stating that the value of a variable or of an argument may not be modified. In the following example the intent is to change the value of a variable ival, which fails:

    int main()
        int const ival = 3;     // a constant int
                                // initialized to 3

        ival = 4;               // assignment produces
                                // an error message
This example shows how ival may be initialized to a given value in its definition; attempts to change the value later (in an assignment) are not permitted.

Variables that are declared const can, in contrast to C, be used to specify the size of an array, as in the following example:

    int const size = 20;
    char buf[size];             // 20 chars big
Another use of the keyword const is seen in the declaration of pointers, e.g., in pointer-arguments. In the declaration
    char const *buf;
buf is a pointer variable pointing to chars. Whatever is pointed to by buf may not be changed through buf: the chars are declared as const. The pointer buf itself however may be changed. A statement like *buf = 'a'; is therefore not allowed, while ++buf is.

In the declaration

    char *const buf;
buf itself is a const pointer which may not be changed. Whatever chars are pointed to by buf may be changed at will.

Finally, the declaration

    char const *const buf;
is also possible; here, neither the pointer nor what it points to may be changed.

The rule of thumb for the placement of the keyword const is the following: whatever occurs to the left to the keyword may not be changed.

Although simple, this rule of thumb is often used. For example, Bjarne Stroustrup states (in

Should I put "const" before or after the type?

I put it before, but that's a matter of taste. "const T" and "T const" were always (both) allowed and equivalent. For example:

    const int a = 1;        // OK
    int const b = 2;        // also OK
My guess is that using the first version will confuse fewer programmers (``is more idiomatic'').
But we've already seen an example where applying this simple `before' placement rule for the keyword const produces unexpected (i.e., unwanted) results as we will shortly see (below). Furthermore, the `idiomatic' before-placement also conflicts with the notion of const functions, which we will encounter in section 7.7. With const functions the keyword const is also placed behind rather than before the name of the function.

The definition or declaration (either or not containing const) should always be read from the variable or function identifier back to the type indentifier:

``Buf is a const pointer to const characters''
This rule of thumb is especially useful in cases where confusion may occur. In examples of C++ code published in other places one often encounters the reverse: const preceding what should not be altered. That this may result in sloppy code is indicated by our second example above:
    char const *buf;
What must remain constant here? According to the sloppy interpretation, the pointer cannot be altered (as const precedes the pointer). In fact, the char values are the constant entities here, as becomes clear when we try to compile the following program:
    int main()
        char const *buf = "hello";

        ++buf;                  // accepted by the compiler
        *buf = 'u';             // rejected by the compiler
Compilation fails on the statement *buf = 'u'; and not on the statement ++buf.

Marshall Cline's C++ FAQ gives the same rule (paragraph 18.5) , in a similar context:

[18.5] What's the difference between "const Fred* p", "Fred* const p" and "const Fred* const p"?

You have to read pointer declarations right-to-left.

Marshall Cline's advice can be improved, though. Here's a recipe that will effortlessly dissect even the most complex declaration:
  1. start reading at the variable's name
  2. read as far as possible until you reach the end of the declaration or an (as yet unmatched) closing parenthesis.
  3. return to the point where you started reading, and read backwards until you reach the beginning of the declaration or a matching opening parenthesis.
  4. If you reached an opening parenthese, continue at step 2 beyond the parenthesis where you previously stopped.
Let's apply this recipe to the following (by itself irrelevant) complex declaration. Little arrows indicate how far we should read at each step and the direction of the arrow indicates the reading direction:
    char const *(* const (*(*ip)())[])[]

                             ip          Start at the variable's name:
                                             'ip' is

                             ip)         Hitting a closing paren: revert

                           (*ip)         Find the matching open paren:
                           <-                'a pointer to'

                           (*ip)())      The next unmatched closing par:
                                -->          'a function (not expecting

                         (*(*ip)())      Find the matching open paren:
                         <-                  'returning a pointer to'

                         (*(*ip)())[])   The next closing par:
                                   -->       'an array of'

                (* const (*(*ip)())[])   Find the matching open paren:
                <--------                    'const pointers to'

                (* const (*(*ip)())[])[] Read until the end:
                                      ->     'an array of'

    char const *(* const (*(*ip)())[])[] Read backwards what's left:
    <-----------                             'pointers to const chars'
Collecting all the parts, we get for char const *(* const (*(*ip)())[])[]: ip is a pointer to a function (not expecting arguments), returning a pointer to an array of const pointers to an array of pointers to const chars. This is what ip represents; the recipe can be used to parse any declaration you ever encounter.

3.1.2: Namespaces

C++ introduces the notion of a namespace: all symbols are defined in a larger context, called a namespace. Namespaces are used to avoid name conflicts that could arise when a programmer would like to define a function like sin operating on degrees, but does not want to lose the capability of using the standard sin function, operating on radians.

Namespaces are covered extensively in chapter 4. For now it should be noted that most compilers require the explicit declaration of a standard namespace: std. So, unless otherwise indicated, it is stressed that all examples in the Annotations now implicitly use the

        using namespace std;
declaration. So, if you actually intend to compile examples given in the C++ Annotations, make sure that the sources start with the above using declaration.

3.1.3: The scope resolution operator ::

C++ introduces several new operators, among which the scope resolution operator (::). This operator can be used in situations where a global variable exists having the same name as a local variable:
    #include <stdio.h>

    double counter = 50;                // global variable

    int main()
        for (int counter = 1;           // this refers to the
             counter != 10;             // local variable
                    ::counter           // global variable
                    /                   // divided by
                    counter);           // local variable
In the above program the scope operator is used to address a global variable instead of the local variable having the same name. In C++ the scope operator is used extensively, but it is seldom used to reach a global variable shadowed by an identically named local variable. Its main purpose is encountered in chapter 7.

3.1.4: `cout', `cin', and `cerr'

Analogous to C, C++ defines standard input- and output streams which are available when a program is executed. The streams are: Syntactically these streams are not used as functions: instead, data are written to streams or read from them using the operators <<, called the insertion operator and >>, called the extraction operator. This is illustrated in the next example:
    #include <iostream>

    using namespace std;

    int main()
        int     ival;
        char    sval[30];

        cout << "Enter a number:\n";
        cin >> ival;
        cout << "And now a string:\n";
        cin >> sval;

        cout << "The number is: " << ival << "\n"
                "And the string is: " << sval << '\n';
This program reads a number and a string from the cin stream (usually the keyboard) and prints these data to cout. With respect to streams, please note: The stream objects cin, cout and cerr are not part of the C++ grammar proper. The streams are part of the definitions in the header file iostream. This is comparable to functions like printf that are not part of the C grammar, but were originally written by people who considered such functions important and collected them in a run-time library.

A program may still use the old-style functions like printf and scanf rather than the new-style streams. The two styles can even be mixed. But streams offer several clear advantages and in many C++ programs have completely replaced the old-style C functions. Some advantages of using streams are:

The iostream library has a lot more to offer than just cin, cout and cerr. In chapter 6 iostreams are covered in greater detail. Even though printf and friends can still be used in C++ programs, streams have practically replaced the old-style C I/O functions like printf. If you think you still need to use printf and related functions, think again: in that case you've probably not yet completely grasped the possibilities of stream objects.

3.2: Functions as part of structs

Earlier we noted that functions can be part of structs (see section 2.5.13). Such functions are called member functions. This section briefly discusses how to define such functions.

The code fragment below shows a struct having data fields for a person's name and address. A function print is included in the struct's definition:

    struct Person
        char name[80];
        char address[80];

        void print();
When defining the member function print the structure's name (Person) and the scope resolution operator (::) are used:
    void Person::print()
        cout << "Name:      " << name << "\n"
                "Address:   " << address << '\n';
The implementation of Person::print shows how the fields of the struct can be accessed without using the structure's type name. Here the function Person::print prints a variable name. Since Person::print is itself a part of struct person, the variable name implicitly refers to the same type.

This struct Person could be used as follows:

    Person person;

    strcpy(, "Karel");
    strcpy(person.address, "Marskramerstraat 33");
The advantage of member functions is that the called function automatically accesses the data fields of the structure for which it was invoked. In the statement person.print() the object person is the `substrate': the variables name and address that are used in the code of print refer to the data stored in the person object.

3.2.1: Data hiding: public, private and class

As mentioned before (see section 2.3), C++ contains specialized syntactic possibilities to implement data hiding. Data hiding is the capability of sections of a program to hide its data from other sections. This results in very clean data definitions. It also allows these sections to enforce the integrity of their data.

C++ has three keywords that are related to data hiding: private, protected and public. These keywords can be used in the definition of structs. The keyword public allows all subsequent fields of a structure to be accessed by all code; the keyword private only allows code that is part of the struct itself to access subsequent fields. The keyword protected is discussed in chapter 13, and is somewhat outside of the scope of the current discussion.

In a struct all fields are public, unless explicitly stated otherwise. Using this knowledge we can expand the struct Person:

    struct Person
            char d_name[80];
            char d_address[80];
            void setName(char const *n);
            void setAddress(char const *a);
            void print();
            char const *name();
            char const *address();
As the data fields d_name and d_address are in a private section they are only accessible to the member functions which are defined in the struct: these are the functions setName, setAddress etc.. As an illustration consider the following code:
    Person fbb;

    fbb.setName("Frank");         // OK, setName is public
    strcpy(fbb.d_name, "Knarf");  // error, x.d_name is private
Data integrity is implemented as follows: the actual data of a struct Person are mentioned in the structure definition. The data are accessed by the outside world using special functions that are also part of the definition. These member functions control all traffic between the data fields and other parts of the program and are therefore also called `interface' functions. The thus implemented data hiding is illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Private data and public interface functions of the class Person.

The members setName and setAddress are declared with char const * parameters. This indicates that the functions will not alter the strings which are supplied as their arguments. Analogously, the members name and address return char const *s: the compiler prevents callers of those members from modifying the information made accessible through the return values of those members.

Two examples of member functions of the struct Person are shown below:

    void Person::setName(char const *n)
        strncpy(d_name, n, 79);
        d_name[79] = 0;

    char const *Person::name()
        return d_name;
The power of member functions and of the concept of data hiding results from the abilities of member functions to perform special tasks, e.g., checking the validity of the data. In the above example setName copies only up to 79 characters from its argument to the data member name, thereby avoiding a buffer overflow.

Another illustration of the concept of data hiding is the following. As an alternative to member functions that keep their data in memory a library could be developed featuring member functions storing data on file. To convert a program storing Person structures in memory to one that stores the data on disk no special modifications are required. After recompilation and linking the program to a new library it is converted from storage in memory to storage on disk. This example illustrates a broader concept than data hiding; it illustrates encapsulation. Data hiding is a kind of encapsulation. Encapsulation in general results in reduced coupling of different sections of a program. This in turn greatly enhances reusability and maintainability of the resulting software. By having the structure encapsulate the actual storage medium the program using the structure becomes independent of the actual storage medium that is used.

Though data hiding can be implemented using structs, more often (almost always) classes are used instead. A class is a kind of struct, except that a class uses private access by default, whereas structs use public access by default. The definition of a class Person is therefore identical to the one shown above, except for the fact that the keyword class has replaced struct while the initial private: clause can be omitted. Our typographic suggestion for class names (and other type names defined by the programmer) is to start with a capital character to be followed by the remainder of the type name using lower case letters (e.g., Person).

3.2.2: Structs in C vs. structs in C++

In this section we'll discuss an important difference between C and C++ structs and (member) functions. In C it is common to define several functions to process a struct, which then require a pointer to the struct as one of their arguments. An imaginary C header file showing this concept is:
    /* definition of a struct PERSON    This is C   */
    typedef struct
        char name[80];
        char address[80];
    } PERSON;

    /* some functions to manipulate PERSON structs */

    /* initialize fields with a name and address    */
    void initialize(PERSON *p, char const *nm,
                       char const *adr);

    /* print information    */
    void print(PERSON const *p);

    /* etc..    */

In C++, the declarations of the involved functions are put inside the definition of the struct or class. The argument denoting which struct is involved is no longer needed.

    class Person
        char d_name[80];
        char d_address[80];

            void initialize(char const *nm, char const *adr);
            void print();
            // etc..
In C++ the struct parameter is not used. A C function call such as:
    PERSON x;

    initialize(&x, "some name", "some address");
becomes in C++:
    Person x;

    x.initialize("some name", "some address");

3.3: Several additions to C's grammar

3.3.1: References

In addition to the common ways to define variables (plain variables or pointers) C++ introduces references defining synonyms for variables. A reference to a variable is like an alias; the variable and the reference can both be used in statements involving the variable:
    int int_value;
    int &ref = int_value;
In the above example a variable int_value is defined. Subsequently a reference ref is defined, which (due to its initialization) refers to the same memory location as int_value. In the definition of ref, the reference operator & indicates that ref is not itself an int but a reference to one. The two statements
have the same effect: they increment int_value's value. Whether that location is called int_value or ref does not matter.

References serve an important function in C++ as a means to pass modifiable arguments to functions. E.g., in standard C, a function that increases the value of its argument by five and returning nothing needs a pointer parameter:

    void increase(int *valp)    // expects a pointer
    {                           // to an int
        *valp += 5;

    int main()
        int x;

        increase(&x);           // pass x's address
This construction can also be used in C++ but the same effect is also achieved using a reference:
    void increase(int &valr)    // expects a reference
    {                           // to an int
        valr += 5;

    int main()
        int x;

        increase(x);            // passed as reference
It is arguable whether code such as the above should be preferred over C's method, though. The statement increase (x) suggests that not x itself but a copy is passed. Yet the value of x changes because of the way increase() is defined. However, references can also be used to pass objects that are only inspected (without the need for a copy or a const *) or to pass objects whose modification is an accepted side-effect of their use. In those cases using references are strongly preferred over existing alternatives like copy by value or passing pointers.

Behind the scenes references are implemented using pointers. So, as far as the compiler is concerned references in C++ are just const pointers. With references, however, the programmer does not need to know or to bother about levels of indirection. An important distinction between plain pointers and references is of course that with references no indirection takes place. For example:

    extern int *ip;
    extern int &ir;

    ip = 0;     // reassigns ip, now a 0-pointer
    ir = 0;     // ir unchanged, the int variable it refers to
                // is now 0.

In order to prevent confusion, we suggest to adhere to the following:

References could result in extremely `ugly' code. A function may return a reference to a variable, as in the following example:

    int &func()
        static int value;
        return value;
This allows the use of the following constructions:
    func() = 20;
    func() += func();
It is probably superfluous to note that such constructions should normally not be used. Nonetheless, there are situations where it is useful to return a reference. We have actually already seen an example of this phenomenon in our previous discussion of streams. In a statement like cout << "Hello" << '\n'; the insertion operator returns a reference to cout. So, in this statement first the "Hello" is inserted into cout, producing a reference to cout. Through this reference the '\n' is then inserted in the cout object, again producing a reference to cout, which is then ignored.

Several differences between pointers and references are pointed out in the next list below:

3.3.2: Rvalue References

In C++, temporary (rvalue) values are indistinguishable from const & types. C++ introduces a new reference type called an rvalue reference, which is defined as typename &&.

The name rvalue reference is derived from assignment statements, where the variable to the left of the assignment operator is called an lvalue and the expression to the right of the assignment operator is called an rvalue. Rvalues are often temporary, anonymous values, like values returned by functions.

In this parlance the C++ reference should be considered an lvalue reference (using the notation typename &). They can be contrasted to rvalue references (using the notation typename &&).

The key to understanding rvalue references is the concept of an anonymous variable. An anonymous variable has no name and this is the distinguishing feature for the compiler to associate it automatically with an rvalue reference if it has a choice. Before introducing some interesting constructions let's first have a look at some standard situations where lvalue references are used. The following function returns a temporary (anonymous) value:

    int intVal()
        return 5;
Although intVal's return value can be assigned to an int variable it requires copying, which might become prohibitive when a function does not return an int but instead some large object. A reference or pointer cannot be used either to collect the anonymous return value as the return value won't survive beyond that. So the following is illegal (as noted by the compiler):
    int &ir = intVal();         // fails: refers to a temporary
    int const &ic = intVal();   // OK: immutable temporary
    int *ip = &intVal();        // fails: no lvalue available

Apparently it is not possible to modify the temporary returned by intVal. But now consider these functions:

    void receive(int &value)            // note: lvalue reference
        cout << "int value parameter\n";
    void receive(int &&value)           // note: rvalue reference
        cout << "int R-value parameter\n";
and let's call this function from main:
    int main()
        int value = 5;
This program produces the following output:
    int R-value parameter
    int value parameter
    int R-value parameter
The program's output shows the compiler selecting receive(int &&value) in all cases where it receives an anonymous int as its argument. Note that this includes receive(18): a value 18 has no name and thus receive(int &&value) is called. Internally, it actually uses a temporary variable to store the 18, as is shown by the following example which modifies receive:
    void receive(int &&value)
        cout << "int R-value parameter, now: " << value << '\n';
            // displays 19 and 6, respectively.
Contrasting receive(int &value) with receive(int &&value) has nothing to do with int &value not being a const reference. If receive(int const &value) is used the same results are obtained. Bottom line: the compiler selects the overloaded function using the rvalue reference if the function is passed an anonymous value.

The compiler runs into problems if void receive(int &value) is replaced by void receive(int value), though. When confronted with the choice between a value parameter and a reference parameter (either lvalue or rvalue) it cannot make a decision and reports an ambiguity. In practical contexts this is not a problem. Rvalue refences were added to the language in order to be able to distinguish the two forms of references: named values (for which lvalue references are used) and anonymous values (for which rvalue references are used).

It is this distinction that allows the implementation of move semantics and perfect forwarding. At this point the concept of move semantics cannot yet fully be discussed (but see section 9.7 for a more thorough discussusion) but it is very well possible to illustrate the underlying ideas.

Consider the situation where a function returns a struct Data containing a pointer to dynamically allocated characters. Moreover, the struct defines a member function copy(Data const &other) that takes another Data object and copies the other's data into the current object. The (partial) definition of the struct Data might look like this (To the observant reader: in this example the memory leak that results from using Data::copy() should be ignored):

    struct Data
        char *text;
        size_t size;
        void copy(Data const &other)
            text = strdup(other.text);
            size = strlen(text);
Next, functions dataFactory and main are defined as follows:
    Data dataFactory(char const *txt)
        Data ret = {strdup(txt), strlen(txt)};
        return ret;

    int main()
        Data d1 = {strdup("hello"), strlen("hello")};

        Data d2;
        d2.copy(d1);                        // 1 (see text)

        Data d3;
        d3.copy(dataFactory("hello"));      // 2
At (1) d2 appropriately receives a copy of d1's text. But at (2) d3 receives a copy of the text stored in the temporary returned by the dataFactory function. As the temporary ceases to exist after the call to copy() two related and unpleasant consequences are observed: In cases like these rvalue reference should be used. By overloading the copy member with a member copy(Data &&other) the compiler is able to distinguish situations (1) and (2). It now calls the initial copy() member in situation (1) and the newly defined overloaded copy() member in situation (2):
    struct Data
        char *text;
        size_t size;
        void copy(Data const &other)
            text = strdup(other.text);
        void copy(Data &&other)
            text = other.text;
            other.text = 0;
Note that the overloaded copy() function merely moves the other.text pointer to the current object's text pointer followed by reassigning 0 to other.text. Struct Data suddenly has become move-aware and implements move semantics, removing the drawbacks of the previously shown approach:

3.3.3: Lvalues, rvalues and more

Although this section contains forward references to chapters 5, 7, and 16, its topic best fits the current chapter. This section can be skipped without loss of continuity, and you might consider returning to it once you're familiar with the contents of these future chapters.

Historically, the C programming language distinguished between lvalues and rvalues. The terminology was based on assignment expressions, where the expression to the left of the assignment operator receives a value (e.g., it referred to a location in memory where a value could be written into, like a variable), while the expression to the right of the assignment operator only had to represent a value (it could be a temporary variable, a constant value or the value stored in a variable):

    lvalue = rvalue;

C++ adds to this basic distinction several new ways of referring to expressions:

An expression's value is an xvalue if it is:

Here is a small example. Consider this simple struct:

    struct Demo 
        int d_value;
In addition we have these function declarations and definitions:
    Demo &&operator+(Demo const &lhs, Demo const &rhs);
    Demo &&factory();

    Demo demo;
    Demo &&rref = static_cast<Demo &&>(demo);

Expressions like

    static_cast<Demo &&>(demo);
    demo + demo
are xvalues. However, the expression
is an lvalue.

In many situations it's not particularly important to know what kind of gvalue or what kind of rvalue is actually used. In the C++ Annotations the term lhs (left hand side) is frequently used to indicate an operand that's written to the left of a binary operator, while the term rhs (right hand side) is frequently used to indicate an operand that's written to the right of a binary operator. Lhs and rhs operands could actually be gvalues (e.g., when representing ordinary variables), but they could also be prvalues (e.g., numeric values added together using the addition operator). Whether or not lhs and rhs operands are glvalues can always be determined from the context in which they are used.

3.3.4: Strongly typed enumerations

Enumeration values in C++ are in fact int values, thereby bypassing type safety. E.g., values of different enumeration types may be compared for (in)equality, albeit through a (static) type cast.

Another problem with the current enum type is that their values are not restricted to the enum type name itself, but to the scope where the enumeration is defined. As a consequence, two enumerations having the same scope cannot have identical names.

Such problems are solved by defining enum classes. An enum class can be defined as in the following example:

    enum class SafeEnum
        NOT_OK,     // 0, by implication
        OK          = 10,
        MAYBE_OK    // 11, by implication
Enum classes use int values by default, but the used value type can easily be changed using the : type notation, as in:
    enum class CharEnum: unsigned char
To use a value defined in an enum class its enumeration name must be provided as well. E.g., OK is not defined, CharEnum::OK is.

Using the data type specification (noting that it defaults to int) it is possible to use enum class forward declarations. E.g.,

    enum Enum1;                 // Illegal: no size available
    enum Enum2: unsigned int;   // Legal: explicitly declared type

    enum class Enum3;           // Legal: default int type is used
    enum class Enum4: char;     // Legal: explicitly declared type

A sequence of symbols of a strongly typed enumeration can also be indicated in a switch using the ellipsis syntax, as shown in the next example:

    SafeEnum enumValue();

    switch (enumValue())
        case SafeEnum::NOT_OK ... SafeEnum::OK:
            cout << "Status is known\n";

            cout << "Status unknown\n";

3.3.5: Initializer lists

The C language defines the initializer list as a list of values enclosed by curly braces, possibly themselves containing initializer lists. In C these initializer lists are commonly used to initialize arrays and structs.

C++ extends this concept by introducing the type initializer_list<Type> where Type is replaced by the type name of the values used in the initializer list. Initializer lists in C++ are, like their counterparts in C, recursive, so they can also be used with multi-dimensional arrays, structs and classes.

Before using the initializer_list the <initializer_list> header file must be included.

Like in C, initializer lists consist of a list of values surrounded by curly braces. But unlike C, functions can define initializer list parameters. E.g.,

    void values(std::initializer_list<int> iniValues)
A function like values could be called as follows:
    values({2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13});
The initializer list appears as an argument which is a list of values surrounded by curly braces. Due to the recursive nature of initializer lists a two-dimensional series of values can also be passes, as shown in the next example:
    void values2(std::initializer_list<std::initializer_list<int>> iniValues)

    values2({{1, 2}, {2, 3}, {3, 5}, {4, 7}, {5, 11}, {6, 13}});
Initializer lists are constant expressions and cannot be modified. However, their size and values may be retrieved using their size, begin, and end members as follows:

    void values(initializer_list<int> iniValues)
        cout << "Initializer list having " << iniValues.size() << "values\n";
            initializer_list<int>::const_iterator begin = iniValues.begin();
                begin != iniValues.end();
            cout << "Value: " << *begin << '\n';

Initializer lists can also be used to initialize objects of classes (cf. section 7.5).

3.3.6: Type inference using `auto'

The keyword auto can be used to simplify type definitions of variables and return types of functions if the compiler is able to determine the proper types of such variables or functions.

In additon, the use of auto as a storage class specifier is no longer supported by C++: a variable definition like auto int var results in a compilation error.

This can be very useful in situations where it is very hard to determine the variable's type in advance. These situations occur, e.g., in the context of templates, topics covered in chapters 18 until 23.

At this point in the Annotations only simple examples can be given. Also, some hints will be provided about more general uses of the auto keyword.

When defining and initializing a variable int variable = 5 the type of the initializing expression is well known: it's an int, and unless the programmer's intentions are different this could be used to define variable's type (although it shouldn't in normal circumstances as it reduces rather than improves the clarity of the code):

    auto variable = 5;

Here are some examples where using auto is useful. In chapter 5 the iterator concept is introduced (see also chapters 12 and 18). Iterators sometimes have long type definitions, like

Functions may return types like this. Since the compiler knows the types returned by functions we may exploit this knowledge using auto. Assuming that a function begin() is declared as follows:
    std::vector<std::string>::const_reverse_iterator begin();
Rather than writing the verbose variable definition (at // 1) a much shorter definition (at // 2) may be used:
    std::vector<std::string>::const_reverse_iterator iter = begin();    // 1
    auto iter = begin();                                                // 2
It's easy to define additional variables of this type. When initializing those variables using iter the auto keyword can be used again:
    auto start = iter;

Merely using auto always results in a non-reference type. If auto should refer to a reference type, auto && should be used.

If start can't be initialized immediately using an existing variable the type of a well known variable or function can be used in combination with the decltype keyword, as in:

    decltype(iter) start;
    decltype(begin()) spare;
The keyword decltype may also receive an expression as its argument. E.g., decltype(3 + 5) represents an int, decltype(3 / double(3)) represents double.

Different from auto the type deduced by decltype may either be a value or a reference type, depending on the kind of expression that is passed to decltype. E.g, if int intVal and int &&intTmp() are available, then

    decltype(intVal)     iv(3);         // iv is an int
    declType( (intVal) ) iref(intVal);  // iref is an int &
    declType(intTmp())   tmpRef(f());   // tmpRef is an int &&

In addition to this, decltype(auto) specifications, in which case decltype's rules are applied to auto are supported since the C++14 standard. E.g.,

    decltype(auto) iref2((intVal));     // iref2 is an int &
    auto iref3((intVal));               // iref3 is an int

The auto keyword can also be used to postpone the definition of a function's return type. The declaration of a function intArrPtr returning a pointer to an array of 10 ints looks like this:

    int (*intArrPtr())[10];
Such a declaration is fairly complex. E.g., among other complexities it requires `protection of the pointer' using parentheses in combination with the function's parameter list. In situations like these the specification of the return type can be postponed using the auto return type, followed by the specification of the function's return type after any other specification the function might receive (e.g., as a const member (cf. section 7.7) or following its noexcept specification (cf. section 23.7)).

Using auto to declare the above function, the declaration becomes:

    auto intArrPtr() -> int (*)[10];
A return type specification using auto is called a late-specified return type.

The auto keyword can also be used to defined types that are related to the actual auto associated type. Here are some examples:

    vector<int> vi;
    auto iter = vi.begin();     // standard: auto is vector<int>::iterator
    auto &&rref = vi.begin();   // auto is rvalue ref. to the iterator type
    auto *ptr = &iter;          // auto is pointer to the iterator type
    auto *ptr = &rref;          // same

Since the C++14 standard late return type specifications are no longer required for functions returning auto. Such functions can now simply be declared like this:

    auto autoReturnFunction();
In this case some restrictions apply, both to the function definitions and the function declarations:

3.3.7: Defining types and 'using' declarations

In C++ typedef is commonly used to define shorthand notations for complex types. Assume we want to define a shorthand for `a pointer to a function expecting a double and an int, and returning an unsigned long long int'. Such a function could be:
    unsigned long long int compute(double, int);
A pointer to such a function has the following form:
    unsigned long long int (*pf)(double, int);
If this kind of pointer is frequently used, consider defining it using typedef: simply put typedef in front of it and the pointer's name is turned into the name of a type. It could be capitalized to let it stand out more clearly as the name of a type:
    typedef unsigned long long int (*PF)(double, int);
After having defined this type, it can be used to declare or define such pointers:
    PF pf = compute;        // initialize the pointer to a function like
                            // 'compute'
    void fun(PF pf);        // fun expects a pointer to a function like
                            // 'compute'
However, including the pointer in the typedef might not be a very good idea, as it masks the fact that pf is a pointer. After all, PF pf looks more like `int x' than `int *x'. To document that pf is in fact a pointer, slightly change the typedef:
    typedef unsigned long long int FUN(double, int);

    FUN *pf = compute;      // now pf clearly is a pointer.
The scope of typedefs is restricted to compilation units. Therefore, typedefs are usually embedded in header files which are then included by multiple source files in which the typedefs should be used.

In addition to typedef C++ offers the using keyword to associate a type and and identifier. In practice typedef and using can be used interchangeably. The using keyword arguably result in more readable type definitions. Consider the following three (equivalent) definitions:

3.3.8: Range-based for-loops

The C++ for-statement is identical to C's for-statement:
    for (init; cond; inc)
Often the initialization, condition, and increment parts are fairly obvious, as in situations where all elements of an array or vector must be processed. Many languages offer the foreach statement for that and C++ offers the std::for_each generic algorithm (cf. section 19.1.18).

In addition to the traditional syntax C++ adds new syntax for the for-statement: the range-based for-loop. This new syntax can be used to process all element of a range in turn. Three types of ranges are distinguished:

Here the following additional for-statement syntax is available:
    // assume int array[30]
    for (auto &element: array)
The part to the left of the colon is called the for range declaration. The declared variable (element) is a formal name; use any identifier you like. The variable is only available within the nested statement, and it refers to (or is a copy of) each of the elements of the range, from the first element up to the last.

There's no formal requirement to use auto, but using auto is extremely useful in many situations. Not only in situations where the range refers to elements of some complex type, but also in situations where you know what you can do with the elements in the range, but don't care about their exact type names. In the above example int could also have been used.

The reference symbol (&) is important in the following cases:

When the reference symbol is omitted the variable will be a copy of each of the subsequent elements of the range. Fine, probably, if you merely need to look at the variables when they are of primitive types, but needlessly inefficient if you have an array of BigStruct elements:
    struct BigStruct
        double array[100];
        int    last;
Inefficient, because you don't need to make copies of the array's elements. Instead, use refences to elements:
    BigStruct data[100];    // assume properly initialized elsewhere

    int countUsed()
        int sum = 0;
                            // const &: the elements aren't modified
        for (auto const &element: data)
            sum += element.last;
        return sum;
If data is only available as a pointer to its first element in combination with the number of elements, range-based for loops can also be used, but require a little help. Section 24.5 describes a generic approach to using range based for loops in such cases.

3.3.9: Raw String Literals

Standard ASCII-C strings are delimited by double quotes, supporting escape sequences like \n, \\ and \". In some cases it is useful to avoid escaping strings (e.g., in the context of XML). To this end, C++ offers raw string literals.

Raw string literals start with an R, followed by a double quote, followed by a label (which is an arbitrary sequence of characters not equal to (), followed by (. The raw string ends at the closing parenthesis ), followed by the label which is in turn followed by a double quote. Example:

    R"(A Raw \ "String")"
    R"delimiter(Another \ Raw "(String))delimiter"
In the first case, everything between "( and )" is part of the string. Escape sequences aren't supported so the text \ " within the first raw string literal defines three characters: a backslash, a blank character and a double quote. The second example shows a raw string defined between the markers "delimiter( and )delimiter".

3.3.10: Binary constants

In addition to hexadecimal integral constants (starting with 0x), octal integral constants (starting with 0), and decimal integral constants (starting with one of the digits 1..9), binary integral constants can be defined using the prefixes 0b or 0B. E.g., to represent the (decimal) value 5 the notation 0b101 can also be used. Formally binary constants are supported by C++ since the C++14 standard, but compilers usually supported this well before implementing this standard.

The binary constants come in handy in the context of, e.g., bit-flags, as it immediately shows which bit-fields are set, while other notations are less informative.

3.3.11: (C++17) Selection statements with initializers

The standard for repetition statements start with an optional initialization clause. The initialization clause allows us to localize variables to the scope of the for statements.

C++17 extends this concept to selection statements. The language already allowed us to define and initialize a variable in the condition clauses of if and switch statements, but starting with C++17 the definition and assignment can be separated, thus supporting selection statements with initializer clauses.

Consider the situation where an action should be performed if the next line read from the standard input stream equals go!. When used inside a function, while intending to localize the string to contain the contents of the next line as much as possible, constructions like the following had to be used:

    void function()
        // ... any set of statements
            string line;    // localize line
            if (getline(cin, line))
        // ... any set of statements
C++17 adds an optional init; clause to if and while statements (note that the semicolon is optional too, which is different from the optional init (no semicolon) clause in for statements). This allows us to rephrase the above example as:
    void function()
        // ... any set of statements
        if (string line; getline(cin, line))
        // ... any set of statements

Like the if-statement the switch-statement also supports an optional init; clause. Assume a program processes commands, entered as lines on the standard input, and a function convert is available converting the command to an enumeration value. Applying the init; clause to a switch, all commands may then be processed like this:

    void process()
        while (true)
            switch (string cmd; int select = convert(getline(cin, cmd)))
                case CMD1:

                case CMD2:

Note that a variable may still be defined in the actual condition clauses. This is true for both the extended if and switch statement. But before using the condition clauses an initialization clause may be used to define additional variables (plural, as it may contain a comma-separated list of variables, similar to the syntax that's available for for-statements).

3.3.12: Attributes

Attributes are compiler directives that are inserted into source files to inform the compiler of some peculiarity of the code (variable or function) following the attribute.

The C++ standard defines the following attributes:

3.4: New language-defined data types

In C the following built-in data types are available: void, char, short, int, long, float and double. C++ extends these built-in types with several additional built-in types: the types bool, wchar_t, long long and long double (Cf. ANSI/ISO draft (1995), par. for examples of these very long types). The type long long is merely a double-long long datatype. The type long double is merely a double-long double datatype. These built-in types as well as pointer variables are called primitive types in the C++ Annotations.

There is a subtle issue to be aware of when converting applications developed for 32-bit architectures to 64-bit architectures. When converting 32-bit programs to 64-bit programs, only long types and pointer types change in size from 32 bits to 64 bits; integers of type int remain at their size of 32 bits. This may cause data truncation when assigning pointer or long types to int types. Also, problems with sign extension can occur when assigning expressions using types shorter than the size of an int to an unsigned long or to a pointer. More information about this issue can be found here.

Except for these built-in types the class-type string is available for handling character strings. The datatypes bool, and wchar_t are covered in the following sections, the datatype string is covered in chapter 5. Note that recent versions of C may also have adopted some of these newer data types (notably bool and wchar_t). Traditionally, however, C doesn't support them, hence they are mentioned here.

Now that these new types are introduced, let's refresh your memory about letters that can be used in literal constants of various types. They are:

And, of course: the x and a until f characters can be used to specify hexadecimal constants (optionally using capital letters).

3.4.1: The data type `bool'

The type bool represents boolean (logical) values, for which the (now reserved) constants true and false may be used. Except for these reserved values, integral values may also be assigned to variables of type bool, which are then implicitly converted to true and false according to the following conversion rules (assume intValue is an int-variable, and boolValue is a bool-variable):
        // from int to bool:
    boolValue = intValue ? true : false;

        // from bool to int:
    intValue = boolValue ? 1 : 0;
Furthermore, when bool values are inserted into streams then true is represented by 1, and false is represented by 0. Consider the following example:
    cout << "A true value: "  << true << "\n"
            "A false value: " << false << '\n';
The bool data type is found in other programming languages as well. Pascal has its type Boolean; Java has a boolean type. Different from these languages, C++'s type bool acts like a kind of int type. It is primarily a documentation-improving type, having just two values true and false. Actually, these values can be interpreted as enum values for 1 and 0. Doing so would ignore the philosophy behind the bool data type, but nevertheless: assigning true to an int variable neither produces warnings nor errors.

Using the bool-type is usually clearer than using int. Consider the following prototypes:

    bool exists(char const *fileName);  // (1)
    int  exists(char const *fileName);  // (2)
With the first prototype, readers expect the function to return true if the given filename is the name of an existing file. However, with the second prototype some ambiguity arises: intuitively the return value 1 is appealing, as it allows constructions like
    if (exists("myfile"))
        cout << "myfile exists";
On the other hand, many system functions (like access, stat, and many other) return 0 to indicate a successful operation, reserving other values to indicate various types of errors.

As a rule of thumb I suggest the following: if a function should inform its caller about the success or failure of its task, let the function return a bool value. If the function should return success or various types of errors, let the function return enum values, documenting the situation by its various symbolic constants. Only when the function returns a conceptually meaningful integral value (like the sum of two int values), let the function return an int value.

3.4.2: The data type `wchar_t'

The wchar_t type is an extension of the char built-in type, to accomodate wide character values (but see also the next section). The g++ compiler reports sizeof(wchar_t) as 4, which easily accomodates all 65,536 different Unicode character values.

Note that Java's char data type is somewhat comparable to C++'s wchar_t type. Java's char type is 2 bytes wide, though. On the other hand, Java's byte data type is comparable to C++'s char type: one byte. Confusing?

3.4.3: Unicode encoding

In C++ string literals can be defined as NTB strings. Prepending an NTBS by L (e.g., L"hello") defines a wchar_t string literal.

C++ also supports 8, 16 and 32 bit Unicode encoded strings. Furthermore, two new data types are introduced: char16_t and char32_t storing, respectively, a UTF-16 and UTF-32 unicode value.

In addition, a char type variable is large enough to contain any UTF-8 unicode value as well (i.e., it remains an 8-bit value).

String literals for the various types of unicode encodings (and associated variables) can be defined as follows:

    char     utf_8[] = u8"This is UTF-8 encoded.";
    char16_t utf16[] = u"This is UTF-16 encoded.";
    char32_t utf32[] = U"This is UTF-32 encoded.";
Alternatively, unicode constants may be defined using the \u escape sequence, followed by a hexadecimal value. Depending on the type of the unicode variable (or constant) a UTF-8, UTF-16 or UTF-32 value is used. E.g.,
    char     utf_8[] = u8"\u2018";
    char16_t utf16[] = u"\u2018";
    char32_t utf32[] = U"\u2018";
Unicode strings can be delimited by double quotes but raw string literals can also be used.

3.4.4: The data type `long long int'

C++ also supports the type long long int. On 32 bit systems it has at least 64 usable bits.

3.4.5: The data type `size_t'

The size_t type is not really a built-in primitive data type, but a data type that is promoted by POSIX as a typename to be used for non-negative integral values answering questions like `how much' and `how many', in which case it should be used instead of unsigned int. It is not a specific C++ type, but also available in, e.g., C. Usually it is defined implictly when a (any) system header file is included. The header file `officially' defining size_t in the context of C++ is cstddef.

Using size_t has the advantage of being a conceptual type, rather than a standard type that is then modified by a modifier. Thus, it improves the self-documenting value of source code.

Sometimes functions explictly require unsigned int to be used. E.g., on amd-architectures the X-windows function XQueryPointer explicitly requires a pointer to an unsigned int variable as one of its arguments. In such situations a pointer to a size_t variable can't be used, but the address of an unsigned int must be provided. Such situations are exceptional, though.

Other useful bit-represented types also exists. E.g., uint32_t is guaranteed to hold 32-bits unsigned values. Analogously, int32_t holds 32-bits signed values. Corresponding types exist for 8, 16 and 64 bits values. These types are defined in the header file cstdint and can be very useful when you need to specify or use integral value types of fixed sizes.

3.4.6: Digit separators

To improve the readability of large numbers digit separators for integer and floating point literals can be used. The digit separator is a single quote which may be inserted between digits of such literals to enhance human readability. Multiple digit separators may be used, but only one separator can be inserted between successive digits. E.g.,
    ''123       // won't compile
    1''23       // won't compile either

3.5: A new syntax for casts

Traditionally, C offers the following cast syntax:
here typename is the name of a valid type, and expression is an expression.

C style casts are now deprecated. C++ programs should merely use the new style C++ casts as they offer the compiler facilities to verify the sensibility of the cast. Facilities which are not offered by the classic C-style cast.

A cast should not be confused with the often used constructor notation:

the constructor notation is not a cast, but a request to the compiler to construct an (anonymous) variable of type typename from expression.

If casts are really necessary one of several new-style casts should be used. These new-style casts are introduced in the upcoming sections.

3.5.1: The `static_cast'-operator

The static_cast<type>(expression) is used to convert `conceptually comparable or related types' to each other. Here as well as in other C++ style casts type is the type to which the type of expression should be cast.

Here are some examples of situations where the static_cast can (or should) be used:

3.5.2: The `const_cast'-operator

The const keyword has been given a special place in casting. Normally anything const is const for a good reason. Nonetheless situations may be encountered where the const can be ignored. For these special situations the const_cast should be used. Its syntax is:
A const_cast<type>(expression) expression is used to undo the const attribute of a (pointer) type.

The need for a const_cast may occur in combination with functions from the standard C library which traditionally weren't always as const-aware as they should. A function strfun(char *s) might be available, performing some operation on its char *s parameter without actually modifying the characters pointed to by s. Passing char const hello[] = "hello"; to strfun produces the warning

        passing `const char *' as argument 1 of `fun(char *)' discards const
A const_cast is the appropriate way to prevent the warning:
        strfun(const_cast<char *>(hello));

3.5.3: The `reinterpret_cast'-operator

The third new-style cast is used to change the interpretation of information: the reinterpret_cast. It is somewhat reminiscent of the static_cast, but reinterpret_cast should only be used when it is known that the information as defined in fact is or can be interpreted as something completely different. Its syntax is:
        reinterpret_cast<pointer type>(pointer expression)

Think of the reinterpret_cast as a cast offering a poor-man's union: the same memory location may be interpreted in completely different ways.

The reinterpret_cast is used, for example, in combination with the write function that is available for streams. In C++ streams are the preferred interface to, e.g., disk-files. The standard streams like std::cin and std::cout also are stream objects.

Streams intended for writing (`output streams' like cout) offer write members having the prototype

        write(char const *buffer, int length)
To write the value stored within a double variable to a stream in its un-interpreted binary form the stream's write member is used. However, as a double * and a char * point to variables using different and unrelated representations, a static_cast cannot be used. In this case a reinterpret_cast is required. To write the raw bytes of a variable double value to cout we use:
    cout.write(reinterpret_cast<char const *>(&value), sizeof(double));

All casts are potentially dangerous, but the reinterpret_cast is the most dangerous of them all. Effectively we tell the compiler: back off, we know what we're doing, so stop fuzzing. All bets are off, and we'd better do know what we're doing in situations like these. As a case in point consider the following code:

    int value = 0x12345678;     // assume a 32-bits int

    cout << "Value's first byte has value: " << hex <<
                *reinterpret_cast<unsigned char *>(&value)
The above code produces different results on little and big endian computers. Little endian computers show the value 78, big endian computers the value 12. Also note that the different representations used by little and big endian computers renders the previous example (cout.write(...)) non-portable over computers of different architectures.

As a rule of thumb: if circumstances arise in which casts have to be used, clearly document the reasons for their use in your code, making double sure that the cast does not eventually cause a program to misbehave. Also: avoid reinterpret_casts unless you have to use them.

3.5.4: The `dynamic_cast'-operator

Finally there is a new style cast that is used in combination with polymorphism (see chapter 14). Its syntax is:
Different from the static_cast, whose actions are completely determined compile-time, the dynamic_cast's actions are determined run-time to convert a pointer to an object of some class (e.g., Base) to a pointer to an object of another class (e.g., Derived) which is found further down its so-called class hierarchy (this is also called downcasting).

At this point in the Annotations a dynamic_cast cannot yet be discussed extensively, but we return to this topic in section 14.6.1.

3.5.5: Casting 'shared_ptr' objects

This section can safely be skipped without loss of continuity.

In the context of the class shared_ptr, which is covered in section 18.4, several more new-style casts are availble. Actual coverage of these specialized casts is postponed until section 18.4.5.

These specialized casts are:

3.6: Keywords and reserved names in C++

C++'s keywords are a superset of C's keywords. Here is a list of all keywords of the language:
alignas  char32_t     enum     namespace        return        typedef  
alignof  class        explicit new              short         typeid   
and      compl        export   noexcept         signed        typename 
and_eq   concept      extern   not              sizeof        union    
asm      const        false    not_eq           static        unsigned 
auto     const_cast   float    nullptr          static_assert using    
axiom    constexpr    for      operator         static_cast   virtual  
bitand   continue     friend   or               struct        void     
bitor    decltype     goto     or_eq            switch        volatile 
bool     default      if       private          template      wchar_t  
break    delete       import   protected        this          while    
case     do           inline   public           thread_local  xor      
catch    double       int      register         throw         xor_eq   
char     dynamic_cast long     reinterpret_cast true                   
char16_t else         mutable  requires         try                    


Keywords can only be used for their intended purpose and cannot be used as names for other entities (e.g., variables, functions, class-names, etc.). In addition to keywords identifiers starting with an underscore and living in the global namespace (i.e., not using any explicit namespace or using the mere :: namespace specification) or living in the std namespace are reserved identifiers in the sense that their use is a prerogative of the implementor.